Welfare is a social category and is rooted in the cultural and social structures of society. Therefore, the improvement of welfare policies requires knowledge of these structures and cultural and social conditions. It should be noted that the culture in the cultural discourse of welfare is no longer limited to mental and spiritual values and meanings. It is integrated into all varieties of individual and collective life activity as a natural socio-psychological formation, and manifests itself as a functional unit of social and psychosocial development of the world, and influences current social behavior. Based on the data of the all-Russian sociological survey, the social well-being of the population is diagnosed. The characteristics of social well-being were determined based on a subjective assessment of living conditions. The subjective assessment contains a cognitive (rational) aspect and an affective (emotional) one. In the affective aspect of the subjective assessment, there are more negative emotions in women and people of pre-retirement age.