A poem, story, or play, while expressing the inner states of the author, in many cases, reflect the state of culture and society where the poet or writer has lived in and been influenced by. The study of the lexical-semantic groups of vocabulary concerning the diachronic aspect is a promising direction in exploring the evolution of ideas about different areas of reality. The most important concepts with which human life has an inextricable link are representations of light and darkness. The paper will present the analysis of light in philosophical, worldview, lingual, and linguistic relations. The end of an era, the development of scientific thinking, and changes in the perception of the world image with respect to religious and secular aspects determine the formation of the system of meanings of the word “light”. It should be noted that the study has foremost used the method of conceptual analysis of one of the critical concepts of culture.