The article examines the main challenges and common mistakes that may occur during the translation of culture-bound vocabulary. The article is aimed to identify the nature and reasons for national and cultural deviations in the Russian translation of the novel “Twilight” by Meyer. Research methods are focused on a comprehensive research methodology: descriptive, comparative, and conceptual analysis. The authors applied both traditional and linguocognitive approaches to investigate culture-bound elements of the original novel “Twilight”, and therefore, to explain the reasons for discrepancies found in its Russian translation. The practical value of the article is determined by the fact that the material worked out in the research can be used in lecture courses on the general and partial theory of translation, and seminars on literary translation practice. Research findings have proved that reaching success in linguocultural translation largely depends on the ability of a translator to understand implicit information and apply adequate translation techniques to convey the national identity of the source text.