Under the background of the Belt and Road Initiative, based on two communication channels of Lotman’s Cultural Semiotics, this study focuses on two intersubjective communication channels in higher education between China and the Belt and Road countries. It aims to explore “I-S/he” and “I-I” interpretation communication channels and tries to find the similarities and differences using the comparative and cultural semiotics methods. The major findings consist of three aspects. First, the “I-S/he” sign system includes bilateral, regional, and multilateral intersubjective communication; Second, the “I-I” sign system consists of Chinese and foreign “I-I” intersubjective communication; Third, the similarities between the two communication channels are in the same semiosphere. Meanwhile, the differences between the two communication channels are time and space, subject and object, and variable and invariable. At the end of this study, the authors provide some references to scholars focusing on cultural semiotics and higher education between China and the Belt and Road countries.